Abstract Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U. A Review of the Research. That study focused on science and math major undergraduate critical thinking performance at a major research university, and found that, in addition to Peer Led Team Learning, prior critical thinking skill significantly influenced critical thinking performance Quitadamo, Brahler, and Crouch, unpublished results. Teaching Science for Understanding: The sound of music:

National science organizations have supported this trend with recommendations to improve the advanced thinking skills that support scientific literacy American Association for Higher Education, ; National Research Council, ; National Science Foundation, Although this study surveyed students at the beginning and the end of the academic term and also tracked student progress during the quarter, instrument validity and reliability were not provided. Contains an author and title index. A range of sample essays from poor to high quality was used to calibrate graduate assistant scoring and ensure consistency between assistants from different laboratory sections within the writing group. Internal group discussions allowed students to argue individual viewpoints as they worked toward group agreement on each thought question. Harvard University Press; In his extensive review of writing research, Rivard indicated that gaps in writing research limit its inferential scope, particularly within the sciences.

Previous research indicates that teaching style positively influences certain aspects of student learning Grasha, ; Hativa et al.

Specifically, writing students significantly improved their analysis and inference skills whereas nonwriting students did not. Experimental Validation and Content Validity.

Analysis of covariance and enourage analysis of covariance tests were used to compare critical thinking performance between the writing and nonwriting groups.

Kurfiss, Joanne Gainen [WorldCat Identities]

The ANCOVA test of total critical thinking skill indicated that gender, ethnicity, age, class standing, and academic term did not significantly affect critical thinking performance see Table 2. Theory, Research, Practice, and Possibilities.


kurfiss strategies to encourage critical thinking

Applebee suggested that writing improves thinking because it krfiss an individual to make his or her ideas explicit and to evaluate and choose among tools necessary for effective discourse.

A Human Constructivist View. All participants were nonmajor undergraduates who were taking biology to satisfy their general education science requirement. National Science Foundation; Writing assignment in a nonmajor introductory ecology class.

Teaching Critical Thinking

thinkingg Although the order in which specific labs were taught differed among sections, a common laboratory manual containing prescriptive exercises covering the main themes of biology scientific method, cellular biology and genetics, natural selection and evolution, kingdoms of life, and a mammalian dissection was used across all writing and nonwriting lab sections.

Contains about references. How does it help you? Changes are indicated using raw scores from CCTST pre- and posttests for total critical thinking skill A as well as analysis Binference Cand evaluation D component critical thinking skills.

In addition to writing, prior stratdgies thinking skill and course instructor significantly strateegies critical thinking performance, with prior critical thinking skill having the largest effect on critical thinking gains of any variable tested.

Initial training ended when all graduate assistants scored within 0.

These results indicate that the process of thnking helps students develop improved analytical and inference skills. Student Thought Question Performance Critical thinking performance on student essays was evaluated by applying a thesis-based essay rubric see Supplemental Appendix 2 on initial submissions and final revised essays. It was also unclear whether the development of critical thinking skills was a function of chronological time or whether it was related to instructional time.

Kurfiss, Joanne Gainen

In addition, the NABT exam is designed to assess high school biology performance, not college performance Daempfle, A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills.

Do majors courses do any better? Facing the 21st century. During the same time frame, data from the ACT Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency test showed a thinkinh trend, with undergraduates improving their critical thinking less than 1 SD from freshman to senior year.


Teaching assistants and faculty also needed to be trained on how to evaluate thinming using a rubric.

kurfiss strategies to encourage critical thinking

Although the authors delineate the usefulness of several composition strategies for writing in biology Taylor and Sobota,it was unclear whether student data were used to support their recommendations. Within this schematic, knowledge must be organized and also accessible Students were allowed to use any suitable information or materials laboratory observations, laboratory manuals, lecture notes, textbooks, the Internet, etc.

kurfiss strategies to encourage critical thinking

Science for All Americans. Critical thinking performance on student essays was evaluated by applying a thesis-based essay rubric see Supplemental Appendix 2 on initial submissions and final revised essays. Reopening inquiry into cognitive processes in writing-to-learn. Several covariables were included in the analysis to increase statistical accuracy and precision, and to more specifically isolate the effects of writing on critical thinking performance.

Teaching Critical Thinking | Graduate Connections | Nebraska

In his review, Daempfle identified nine empirical studies that generally support the hypothesis that students who experience writing and other nontraditional teaching methods have higher reasoning skills than students who experience traditional science instruction.

Internal threats that remain a concern include history, maturation, pretest sensitization, selection, and statistical regression toward the mean. Theory, Research, Practice, and Possibilities. Tested covariables included gender, ethnicity, class standing, age, prior critical thinking skill CCTST pretestacademic term, time of day, and instructor.

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