Such a negative relationship between these two variables can be explained using organizational commitment theory and turnover theory. The example descriptive research questions discussed above are written out in full below: In this article, we a explain what internal validity is, and b discuss and provide examples of the various threats to internal validity. Daily calorific intake Groups: We provide some examples below:. At a given day and time, we start the experiment; so the control group continue with their normal day without any music, whilst the treatment group gets to listen to music.

However, it is also common when using descriptive research questions to measure percentages and proportions , so we have included some example descriptive research questions below that illustrate this. Are you trying to determine if there is a relationship between two or more variables, and what this relationship is? Whilst we are not manipulating these extraneous variables, they could still affect the task performance scores i. Ratio variables are interval variables that meet an additional condition: To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Constructs are also often defined in terms of other constructs e.

These dichotomous variables could address questions like:. Population and context-driven extension If you are pursuing a population or context-driven extension i.

Moderator Analysis with a Dichotomous Moderator using SPSS Statistics

As variabes, although it is known that higher levels of physical activity are associated with higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol, a researcher wants to understand whether this relationship is similar in normal weight and obese individuals as determined by their BMI [Body Mass Index], which is a way to assess whether individuals disertation of a normal weight or obese. Extraneous variables The extraneous variables in this study are those variables that could also be measured, which may also affect the results.


Does the question flow? Statistics dialogue box, as shown below:. A, B, AB, O, etc. More difficult to understand and measure: A temperature of 10 Kelvin is four times the temperature of 2.

Research methods theory Research methods theory is a useful place to look for justifications for method-driven extensions because such theory typically explains the advantages and disadvantages of using particular research methods, as vvariables as the relative advantages and disadvantages of using one research method e.

Methods to do this can be based either on graphical or numerical methods.

laerd dissertation variables

Can an exercise-training programme lead to a reduction in blood sugar levels? We provide some examples below:. This task performance is our dependent variable also known as an bariables variable.

Understand the broader literature within which your main journal article and chosen route fit. Expressing the meaning of constructs using theoretical or nominal definitions Translating constructs into operational definitions.

Step 2: Research design for your dissertation | Lærd Dissertation

Duplicationyou would typically not be expected to make any changes to the research design used in the main journal article when setting the research design for your dissertation.

However, sometimes a descriptive research question is not simply interested in measuring the dependent variable in its entirety, but a particular diwsertation of the dependent variable.

Some example hypotheses for the constructs highlighted in Table A include: Extension or the idea of construct validityyou may want to first revisit the introductory article, Route 1: However, when a Likert scale has seven or more values e.

Regression analysis for categorical moderators. Year of university entry Level: Theoretical grouping is simply a way of illustrating a how different constructs are underpinned by certain theories, and b how the theories and constructs you are interested in may overlap.


Take the following examples in red text:. Take the following examples:.

Exam scores Independent variable: What is your gender? How to structure quantitative research questions There is laed “one best way” to structure a quantitative research question.

laerd dissertation variables

Examples of variables that meet this criterion include revision time measured in hoursintelligence measured using IQ scoreexam performance measured from 0 toweight measured in kgand so forth. Some dissertahion theoretical and nominal definitions are presented in the table below: Since a conceptual definition only provides the platform for the operational definition that is used to empirically measure constructs, we discuss about translating constructs into operational definitions in the next section.

Financial performance, corporate social responsibility, variablez survival, organisational culture, service quality, corporate governance, outsourcing, alliances. Can I predict exam anxiety based on knowing the number of hours spent revising? As such, the researcher hypothesized that individuals with higher levels of physical activity would have higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol, but that this relationship would be different for individuals who are normal weight and those who are obese.

However, just because you are only focusing on a small number of variables, this does not mean that these are the only variables that relate to the research you are performing. So if you asked someone if they liked the policies of the Democratic Party and you presented them with the following three categories:

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